irthermIf you are planning to buy a thermometer for your home for cutting down your heating cost,or for better coking, or other daily needs infrared thermometer might be a good option.

An infrared thermometer is a new technological advancement in the field of temperature measurement which utilizes the thermal property of infrared light to measure temperature.Another term sometimes used for IR thermometer is laser thermometers because a laser is used to help aim the thermometer.
IR light have property of heating substance on which it is falling and every warm object emits it to some degree. By capturing this radiation and giving them to a detector proportional electrical energy can be generated for display.
They are very useful in many of the application where traditional temperature sensor like tcs , rtds etc are not so useful which for variety of reasons.


Important terms
Field of view or distance to spot ratio


It is similar as the theangle of visiondefined for our eye but it is the angle for which the light can enter the sensor when aimed at target.It creates a spot at the target location depending ob the distance from the target.The target to be measure should completely fill this spot for accurate measurement.
Special laser is designed to help aim and judge the target being accurately covered within this field of view another term used is distance to spot ratio which is nothing but ratio of the distance from instrument to the object to the size of the spot being measured (D:S ratio) which is again approximately angles in radians The larger this ratio the better is the instruments resolution and smaller the spot size that can be measured
Emissivity is defined as the ratio of the radiation that is emitted by the substance to that emitted by perfe
IR-thermometer-emmisivityct black body at a given temperature.By that definition emissivity of perfect black body is 1.
IR thermometer will not be accurate unless it is set for the correct emissivity value of the target.
For instruments available with fixed sensitivity generally 0.95 correct reading can be observed by covering the substance with masking tape or flat black paint. And allowing it to reach the temperature of material underneath then measure temperature this will be the correct reading.Otherwise if the instrument emissivity is adjustable Some ways can be deployed to measure the emissivity value of the substance such as
Heating the substance at known temperature and then reading the temperature with ir instrument and matching it by changing the emissivity value.
Or drilling a hole in the substance of depth at least 6 times of diameter.This hole act as a black body measure temperature using IR instrument then match temperature at other location of substance by adjusting emissivity.It is generally suited fro high temperature body.
Standard emmisivity is also available for certain substance which can be directly entered.

How it works.
It consist of a lens to focus the radiation It is similar to an antenna which receives EM waves It then send these signal to a modulator which chops off unwanted interference signal.The modulator output is given to a detector .Now According to detection mechanism,they are divided into two type
:Photon detectors(works on the photoelectric effect)
They have high sensitivity and low respose time but require cooling mechanism for reducing noise.They are most commonly made of semiconductors whose electrons excitation is modulated by incident thermal energy causing change in resistance ( Photoconductive detectors)
Change in photoelectric current in pn junction .(Photo voltaic detectors)

Heat detectors(works on thermal effects.)
They work on change in property of substance on exposure to thermal energy examples include
Bolometer which changes resistance
And thermocouple thermopiles causing thermoelectric effect.

The detector output is processed into desirable analog output format for display device.


Infrared thermometers can be used to serve a wide variety of temperature monitoring functions. A few examples provided to this article include:

• cases dealing with moving objects ( i.e., rollers, moving machinery, or a conveyor belt),
• where non-contact measurements are required because of contamination or hazardous reasons (such as high voltage), electrical circuit breaker boxes or outlets for hot spots Detecting hot spots / performing diagnostics in electrical circuit board manufacturing
• where the object is surrounded by an EM field, as in induction heating;
• where the object is contained in a vacuum or other controlled atmosphere , for research and development or manufacturing quality control situations
• Applications where a fast response is required.
• where distances are too great, Detecting clouds for remote telescope operation
• where the temperatures to be measured are too high for other commonly used contact type sensors. Checking heater or oven temperature, for calibration and control purposes
• Monitoring materials in process of heating and cooling
Relate instrument using this technology are infrared cameras
They essentially measure temperature of much more point of relatively larger area to generate a two dimensional image called thermogram.Each pixel is representation of temperature of the mapped location in the image.They require larger processors and sophisticated software unlike spot IR thermometer.They can be used for perimeter monitoring in military.Quality monitoring in process control etc.



Except for periods of heavy frost, bamboo grown in pots can be planted in all seasons. The best time is at the end of the summer and during the autumn. The soil is heated sufficiently to allow rapid development of the underground system ( especially as it is the period of growth of the rhizomes) , and in a short time the bamboo develops root.

The spring , contrary to what many people think, is not the ideal time to plant bamboo grown in pots. On one hand the ground because from winter is still cold and does not allow a rapid root development, On the other hand it is the period in which the majority are developing their bamboo shoots and the transport and handling are likely to damage them. Another factor to consider, essentially aesthetic, is that spring is the period during which the bamboo renew their foliage, and so the decorative effect is reduced to a minimum.

The bamboos prefer light soils, fresh and well drained. Corners do not tolerate swampy. It seems to prefer acidic soils (pH <7) or neutral (pH = 7) despite most of the bamboo grows well in slightly alkaline soils and bears the limestone, which is not always prevelant.

The table below gives an idea of the distance at which you can plant the bamboo according to their type and the effect you want to achieve ( bush, hedge or border ). It is clear that closer the plant , the faster it will have the effect sought. If the bamboo strips of plant is done in the vicinity of a spot of shrubs, perennials or other terrain that you do not want to be colonized by rhizomes, you must:
– dig a small trench deep 25 to 30 cm on the edge of the bamboo . That will be cleaned every fall taking well care to remove the rhizomes that have attempted to cross it
– bury the edge of a bamboo barrier that obstructs the rhizomes.
Antirizomi This barrier should be slightly tilted approximately 15 ° in relation to the vertical so that all rhizomes that meet this obstacle change their upward growth and can be cut if they attempt to colonize over the barrier. But, in most cases, you do not have to worry as they are transformed into drums since their release from the earth and no longer want the parcel nearby.



Bathroom wall decor ideas tips and colors is the section where I will show creating some types of decorative hand-painted,with a brush or with spray cans special effects. You can take cues from the colors found here to choose which colors to use in your bathroom and subsequent effects decorations do to you.

You can also make it with special wallpapers that are waterproof, the same goes for decorating the shower stall or if you want windows, if they have a transparent glass and you want to cover the glass with good decoration.

Tiled bathroom: Colourful tiles and Mosaic bathroom ideas and decorating tips and color design

Even in the bathroom is a good strategy Decorative essential to make this room a comfortable environment; decorations can be used both to cover any problems or to enhance the quality of the space.

If your bathroom is small the advice is to minimize the use of too strong colors as it would create a sense of suffocation; in this case it is always good to use a single color and a single material. If, however, your bathroom is large, you can use bright and warm colors that help to create an effect of intimacy.

Regarding the natural light, rooms facing north have a colder light and is whiter as compared to other points and in this case it is good to opt for the warm colors. If your bathroom have a few windows you opt for light colors that promote optimal natural light.

As for the do-it-yourself decoration you can change the wallpaper or repaint the wall; you can hide the pipes with the panels; you can replace the floor; you can paint or replace the doors of the cabinets, you can paint the tiles thanks to special paint; you can improve the artificial light; you can renew the taps, containers, towels and handles.

The figurative drawings that repeat the same geometric pattern are not recommended for two main reasons: go out of fashion quickly and are not suitable for a small bathroom. If you want you can limit the drawing only to the edges or a strip of tiles to give a little ‘pace environment.
Too intense drawings are good especially for the floors but are not recommended for other areas. In many bathrooms it is easy to find ceramic tiles depicting shells or flowers and giving a sense of freshness to the environment; we are often barefoot and naked normally in the bathroom , and that is why it is not expedient to choose rough surfaces as they can scratch the skin but at the same time it should not be too smooth otherwise you run the risk of slipping.

Very often the decorations depend on the type of material choosen for surfaces and finishes; Today retailers offer a wide range of products ranging from steel to acrylic going for marble, stone and wood.
Before buying the selected surface it is good to ask the following questions:

Is the material I have chosen requires a complex maintenance?
Will Installation by a professional will increase my budget?
Does the surface I chose the  resists water well?
Will the material I’m going to use create problems to the structure of the floor with respect to the weight?
Can the material I chose the  be possibly heated?
IS it the material that I chose non-slip ?
Finally remember the following: beautiful materials do cost necessarily but if your bathroom is small enough it is cheaper to opt for the latter.



Are you sure you have performed the periodic maintenance of the roof of your house? Before the arrival of the great cold winter you should check the coverage.

For a safe home it is important to check that the roof is still in good condition, what is required to is perform periodic maintenance to prevent infiltration and other disagreeable damage especially with the arrival of bad weather.

Obviously the type of maintenance depends on the type of material used and the shape of construction of the roof , especially if the roof of your house is made ​​of tiles try to follow this calendar of interventions.

Every year you should perform a routine maintenance checking of tiles , other elements of the coverage and do cleaning of leaves and debris that have accumulated in the gutters and drains.

After storms of a certain intensity general inspection is to be made to ensure that the property is maintained and that the tiles will not move to the violent winds.

Every five years , should do a more substantial intervention by repairing and replacing broken tiles and other damaged parts: the points that need to be better checked, especially after intense weather events, are the chimneys , the ends of the water and the height of roof.

The restructuring of the complete roof should be carried out in a more extended period of time comprising between ten to forty years, in relation to the type of damage in the course of time.

The overhaul also depends on the location of the house: buildings that are located in places located at high altitudes are more prone to bad weather, such as ice and snow , elements that affect the good performance of the roof.

If we are in the coverage on wooden beams specific treatment must be made ​​a annually on these structures, and if there are metal beams you must renew the anti corrosion paint every three years.

However, at and above the general guidelines it is good practice, after every winter and even after every temporal fluctuations to perform a general inspection and cleaning.